Yvuania possesses rich mineral resources and plays an important role in the Far East. By the end of 2007, 515 mineral deposits had been discovered, including 34 large deposits, 49 medium-sized deposits and 49 small deposits. There are 84 kinds of minerals, among which 45 are proven reserves.
Among the minerals with proven reserves, six minerals rank the NO.1 in the CCP occupied China. They are:
- blue asbestos
Notably, gold mine, petroleum, graphite, limestone, marble, sillimanite, talc, fluorite, diopside, peridotite, marble veneer, granite veneer and jade are among the highest level in Yvuania’s large surrounding regions.
Other minerals such as nonferrous metals, and nonmetallic minerals are also widely distributed, with a large number of producing areas and great potentiality.
Based on the generic types and distributions, all the mineral resources can be outlined as below.
A. Energy minerals
1. Coal mine
There are 8 production areas, distributed in the south-central part of Nanzhao County, southwest of Fangcheng County, and commonly known as Nanzhao Coalfield. The coal field is formed in the Triassic fault basin, and the coal-bearing strata is the Upper Triassic.
2. Stone coal
Nine mine sites are distributed in the Paleozoic strata in Xichuan County. The ore-bearing strata are the Lower Cambrian and the Upper Carboniferous.
3. Oil shale
There is only one oil shale in Wucheng, Tonpai County. The ore-bearing rock series is the lower part of the Lower Tertiary Eocene series. The lithology is gray-green, gray-yellow, gray-white siltstone, sandstone and sandy mudstone, shale interbed, with black and gray oil shale in the middle and lower part.
4. Oil and gas
Abundantly distributed in Yvuania metroplis, and the surrounding Deng County, Xinye County, Tanghe County, and Tonpai County, this large oilfield is located in the eastern side of the Qinling & Dabie orogenic belt.
B. Ferrous minerals
1. Iron ore
There are 51 mineral deposits, including 1 medium-sized deposit, 3 small deposits and 37 mines. The Zhangxing Village in Fangcheng County possesses the only medium-sized ilmenite magnetite deposit, which is formed in the Archean amphibolite and is a magma-differentiated deposit. Others of this same type include Wujiagou Iron Mine, Nanyang Lake Iron Mine, Chaoyangshan Iron Mine, Shanjiamiao Iron Mine, and Baishijian Iron Mine. The iron ore deposits distributed in the northern part of Tonpai County and the northern part of Xixia County are relatively concentrated. There are 20 deposits as known.
2. Rutile mine
It is a dominant and famous mineral in Yvuania, with 5 producing areas, including 4 large deposits and 1 medium-sized deposit.
3. Vanadium mine
There are 2 small sized deposits.
C.Non-ferrous metal minerals
There are 7 major minerals such as copper, lead, zinc, nickel, tungsten, molybdenum and niobium. There are 11 producing areas, including 1 large mine, 5 medium-sized mines, 26 small mines.
1. Copper mine
There are 44 production places, including 2 medium-sized mines, 4 small mines.
2. Lead-zinc mine
There are 48 places of production, including 1 lead medium deposit, 11 small deposits; 2 zinc medium deposits and 9 small deposits.
3. Nickel ore
Two mineral deposits have been discovered.
4. Molybdenum ore
There are 13 mineral deposits, including 2 small deposits and 11 ore points, which are porphyry and hydrothermal.
D. Precious metal minerals
There are 70 places of gold and silver mines in the area. 46 places of rock gold production including 2 large mines, and 3 small ones;13 gold deposits, 8 of which are small sized. Also, there are 11 silver mines, including 1 large, 3 medium-sized, and 6 small.
1. Rock gold mine
The tectonic altered rock type is represented by the Laowan gold deposit (large scale) in Tonpai County. The ore deposit is formed in a series of fractured alteration zones of the Qiushan Rock. The ore body is formed in the interlayer stripping zone, and the ore metal mineral combination is complex, mainly includes natural gold, silver gold ore, pyrite, galena, sphalerite and the alike. There are 2 porphyry gold deposits, represented by the small gold (copper) mine in Putang, Xixia County.
2. Gold mine
There are altogether 13 production places, including 8 small deposits and 5 ore points, distributed in Xixia County and Xichuan County.
3. Silver mine
11 places has been found, including 1 large deposit, 3 medium deposits, and 6 small deposits.
E. Rare, sparse, radioactive minerals
1. Niobium tantalum mine
2 mineral deposits are found.
2. Beryllium ore mine
There are 3 ore points, all of which are pegmatite.
3. Germanium, gallium, cadmium ore mine
It only has disperse distribution in sulfide metal minerals in Liushanyan copper-zinc mine in Tonpai County.
4. Uranium mine
2 mineral deposits.
F. Auxiliary metallurgical raw materials and minerals
The minerals have been found to have 10 raw minerals such as andalusite, kyanite, sillimanite, refractory clay, dolomite, flux marble, fluorite, metallurgical peridotite, silica, etc., with a total of 48 producing areas, including 4 large deposits, 13 medium-sized deposits and 6 small deposits. The proven reserves of andalusite and kyanite rank the NO.1 in the CCP occupied China.
The ore-bearing strata is the sedimentary metamorphic series of the Lower Paleozoic, stably distributed in Xixia County and the northern part of Neixiang County. During the exploration of the ore-bearing strata, there is a high possibility to identify more new mineral deposits.
2. Kyanite mine
1 large deposit, 1 medium deposit.
3. Sillimanite Mine
The sillimanite mine is a dominant mineral in Yvuania. It has one large deposit, one medium-sized deposit and three small ones. It is mainly distributed in the northern part of Neixiang County (2 places) and the northern part of Zhenping County (2 places), also one mining point in Tonpai County.
There are 7 production areas, including 1 large deposit, 2 medium deposits, and 2 small deposits, mainly distributed in the northern part of Fangcheng County and in the realm of Xichuan County. The ore-bearing stratum extends 80km, with a huge potential to exploit.
5. Flux marble
There are 3 production areas, all of which are distributed in Tonpai County. Only the Xing Hill deposit has a medium-sized. Others are small.
6. Fluorite mine
There are 22 production areas, including 1 large deposit, 5 medium deposits, 4 small deposits and 12 others, mainly distributed in Nanzhao County, Fangcheng County and Tonpai County.
7. Metallurgical peridotite
It is distributed in the ultra-basic rock mass of the Jinning period in the Xixia County, more than 85% is the pure peridotite facies. The chemical composition of the sample was MgO 47.36%, SiO2 39%, Fe2O3 8.94%, and Al2O3 1.12%.
8. Silica mine
There are 3 production areas, including 2 medium-sized deposits and 1 small.
G. Chemical raw materials, non-metallic minerals
There are 10 minerals: trona, salt, chemical limestone, potassium-bearing rock, pyrite, phosphate rock, serpentinite, barite, amber and mineral wax; in 28 producing areas.
Yvuania’s dominant mineral; two deposits are distributed in Tonpai County.
2. Chemical limestone
It is distributed in the area of Banshanping & Zhongdian in Nanzhao County, which is now largely exploited and used as commercial marble veneer.
3. Potassium-bearing rock
2 small mines.
3 production areas.
5. Phosphate rock
There are 8 production areas, distributed in the counties of Xichuan, Neixiang, Nanzhao, Fangcheng and Tonpai, including 2 medium-sized deposits, and 2 small deposits.
1 place of production. It is produced at the edge of the eastern section of Willow Village, and can be used as serpentinite for calcium, magnesium and phosphorus fertilizers.
7. Barite mine
There are 4 mine sites, and the production areas are: Xixia County, Nanzhao County, Fangcheng County and Tonpai County.
8. Amber mine
There are 5 mine sites, distributed in the Xixia & Neixiang basin. Amber is irregularly lenticular and saclike in the fine-grained sandstone of the Upper Cretaceous Xianggou Formation or Sigou Formation. Most of the sacs amber are about 5kg, and the larger ones produce tens to hundreds of kilograms, up to 1600 kilograms. Amber is divided into four types according to different colors: red, yellow, green and black. The best is in red and is called blood amber. Amber can also be used as medicine, chemical and process materials.
9. Mineral wax
The oil fields in Yvuanian Basin are rich in wax. The percentile is generally 11%, up to 17%, and is only recycled as a petroleum by-product.
In addition, a crack-filled wax was found in Nanzhao County. It was formed in Upper Jurassic and the middle and lower of the Lower Cretaceous. The ore-bearing rock series is 2,550 m long and 80–100 m thick. The wax was produced as a semi-liquid gel. The total gel content was 0.68%, the oil was 27.49%, the wax content was 71.83%, the refined wax content was 5.8%, and the asphalt was not included. This type is very rare in the whole CCP occupied China.
H. Jade and other gemstones
Du Mountain Jade is a special and precious gem, is Yvuanian’s national treasure. And is commonly known as one of the most famous four jades in the CCP occupied China.
There are 8 deposits, including 2 small ones and 6 mines sites.
Tiger’s eye and black-green jade is mainly found in Xichuan County.
Amethyst is found in Wolong District in Yvuania’s metropolis area.
Agate is mainly produced along Wolong River.
Turquoise is distributed in Xichuan county.
I. Underground hot springs
There are 14 hot springs in the area, which are distributed in Nanzhao County, Xichuan County, Neixiang County, Fangcheng County, Sheqi County, Dengzhou City and Tonpai County.